What are carbohydrates and what is the difference?


Sugar is a common name for a group of sweet soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food products. These carbohydrates consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

There are different types of sugars. The easiest is monosaccharides (organic compounds that are not cleaving with water to more simple carbohydrates). For example, fructose, galactose and glucose. Table sugar, which we use in food, is a Disaccharide sucrose. Disaccharides are organic substances that are split into two saccharide molecules.

Oligosaccharides are carbohydrates that contain from 2 to 10 monosaccharide residues.

Some monosaccharides form a connection with other monosaccharides, forming disaccharides (sucrose) and polysaccharides (starch). When drinking sugar in food enzymes (enzymes) split these ties and sugar is digested. After that, monosaccharides turn into glucose, fructose and galactose.

Monosaccharides Penos and hexica have a ring structure.

These include fructose, glucose and galactose.

Glucose (dextrose, grape sugar) occurs in fruits and vegetable juices. It is the original product of photosynthesis. Glucose can be obtained from starch by adding enzymes (enzymes) or in the presence of acids.

Fructose or fruit sugar is present in fruit, some root, cane sugar and honey. This is the sweetest sugar. Fructose is part of the table sugar (sucrose).

Galactose is not found in pure form, but it is part of the milk sugar (disaccharide lactose). It is less sweet than glucose. Galactose is part of antigens located on the surface of blood vessels.

Sakhares, maltose and lactose belong to disaccharides.

They are formed due to the combination of two molecules of monosaccharides, with the exception of one water molecule.

Sakharoza is contained in root of sugar beet, carrots, cane sugar stems. Sugarrosy molecule is a compound of fructose molecules and glucose.

Maltose is formed during the seed germs of some plants, such as barley. Maltose molecule appears due to the combination of two glucose molecules. This sugar is less sweet than glucose, sucrose and fructose.

Lactose is found in milk. Its molecule is a compound of galactose and glucose molecules.

As you can see, sugar in one form or another are contained in different food.

Author: Margarita Harenko. Editorial: Fedor Karasenko.

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